A chiasm is a literary structure where the themes of the first section of a passage are repeated in reverse order in the second. The center of the chiasm is typically the climax of the passage. In John 19:31-37 the center and climax is John writing as a witness to the crucifixion states, “And he who has seen has testified, and his testimony is true and he knows that he is telling the truth, so that you also may believe (John 19:35).